3-1. Flow phenomena and aerodynamic efficiency

Circulation for lift generation, airfoils in compressible flow

Airfoils and wings in transonic viscous flow

Airfoil performance: drag rise, drag polar, aerodynamic efficiency


Circulatory inviscid flow past a circle


Circulation in viscous flow

Airfoils in compressible flow

Viscous circle in 2D and 3D , CFD result

Airfoil or wing polars and aerodynamic efficiency